References and Further Reading 1. Life Marcus Aurelius was born in C. His early education was overseen by the Emperor Hadrian, and he was later adopted by the Emperor Antoninus Pius in C. After an initial education in rhetoric undertaken by Fronto, Marcus later abandoned it in favor of philosophy.
Here, however, we meet with the problem about the sources of our knowledge about Stoicism. We do not possess a single complete work by any of the first three heads of the Stoic school: Chrysippus was particularly prolific, composing over works, but we have only fragments of his works.
They tend to be long on moral exhortation but give only clues to the theoretical bases of the moral system. For detailed information about the Old Stoa i.
CE — and their sources Aetius ca. CE and Arius Didymus 1st c. Nearly all of the latter group are hostile witnesses. Among them are the Aristotelian commentator Alexander of Aphrodisias late 2nd c.
CE ; Plotinus 3rd c. CE ; the Christian bishops Eusebius 3rd—4th c. CE and Nemesius ca. Another important source is Cicero 1st c. Though his own philosophical position derives from that of his teacher Philo of Larissa and the New Academy, he is not without sympathy for what he sees as the high moral tone of Stoicism.
In works like his Academic Books, On the Nature of the Gods, and On Ends he provides summaries in Latin, with critical discussion, of the views of the major Hellenistic schools of thought.
Eudaimonia is a subject in which Aristotle and Aurelius were familiar with in their writings about philosophical life. Aristotle thought of eudaimonia as an activity . Aristotle: Ethics Summary RS.4 Thesis: Aristotle is the founding father of ethics and his ideas on achieving, he tells us how we should live our lives and make our own happiness. Aristotle is Ideas on Ethics are still wildly used in colleges today and his approach is still the springboard for resolving ethical problems and further Teleology. Aristotle regards the slave as a piece of live property having no existence except in relation to his master. Slavery is a natural institution because there is a ruling and a subject class among people related to each other as soul to body; however, we must distinguish between those who are slaves by nature, and those who have become .
From these sources, scholars have attempted to piece together a picture of the content, and in some cases, the development of Stoic doctrine. In some areas, there is a fair bit of consensus about what the Stoics thought and we can even attach names to some particular innovations.
However, in other areas the proper interpretation of our meagre evidence is hotly contested. Until recently, non-specialists have been largely excluded from the debate because many important sources were not translated into modern languages.
Fragments of Stoic works and testimonia in their original Greek and Latin were collected into a three-volume set in —5 by H. In Long and Sedley was followed by a collection of primary texts edited by B.
Gerson entitled Hellenistic Philosophy. The Inwood and Gerson collection translates many of the same texts, but unlike LS does not chop them up into smaller bits classified by topic.
Each approach has its merits, but the LS collection better serves the needs of an encyclopedia entry. For French translation of Chrysippus, see Dufour For German translation of the early Stoa, see Nickel Philosophy and Life When considering the doctrines of the Stoics, it is important to remember that they think of philosophy not as an interesting pastime or even a particular body of knowledge, but as a way of life.
Once we come to know what we and the world around us are really like, and especially the nature of value, we will be utterly transformed.
This therapeutic aspect is common to their main competitors, the Epicureans, and perhaps helps to explain why both were eventually eclipsed by Christianity.
The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius provide a fascinating picture of a would-be Stoic sage at work on himself. In it, he not only reminds himself of the content of important Stoic teaching but also reproaches himself when he realises that he has failed to incorporate this teaching into his life in some particular instance.
Today many people still turn to Stoicism as a form of psychological discipline. One of the most influential modern interpretations of means through which the Stoic philosophizing accomplished such a transformation introduces the notion of spiritual exercises. For a more general treatment covering Stoic philosophy as a whole, see Sellars For a recent discussion of the entire question of philosophy as a way — or rather as many ways — of life in antiquity, see Cooper There d-ePlato asks for a mark or indication of what is real or what has being.
Thus, only bodies exist. However, they also hold that there are other ways of appearing in the complete inventory of the world than by virtue of existing. The distinction between the subsistent and the existent somewhat complicates the easy assimilation of Stoicism to modern materialism.
All existent things are, in addition, particulars. But there may well have been development within the school from this conceptualist view toward a form of predicate nominalism. In accord with this ontology, the Stoics, like the Epicureans, make God a corporeal entity, though not as with the Epicureans one made of everyday matter.
But while the Epicureans think the gods are too busy being blessed and happy to be bothered with the governance of the universe Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus —4the Stoic God is immanent throughout the whole of creation and directs its development down to the smallest detail.
The governing metaphor for Stoic cosmology is biological, in contrast to the fundamentally mechanical conception of the Epicureans.Aristotle: Ethics Summary RS.4 Thesis: Aristotle is the founding father of ethics and his ideas on achieving, he tells us how we should live our lives and make our own happiness.
Aristotle is Ideas on Ethics are still wildly used in colleges today and his approach is still the springboard for resolving ethical problems and further Teleology. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics goes to show that he believes that the end goal of all human actions is eudaimonia, or happiness through success and fulfillment.
Following this concept Aristotle goes on to explain that through virtuosity a human being can lead a happy life. He defines virtue as a disposition to make the correct decisions [ ]. Aristotle regards the slave as a piece of live property having no existence except in relation to his master.
Slavery is a natural institution because there is a ruling and a subject class among people related to each other as soul to body; however, we must distinguish between those who are slaves by nature, and those who have become .
The Modern Library Collection of Greek and Roman Philosophy 3-Book Bundle: Meditations; Selected Dialogues of Plato; The Basic Works of Aristotle - Kindle edition by Marcus Aurelius, Plato, Aristotle.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while 5/5(1). The philosophy of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius can be found in a collection of personal writings known as the Meditations.
These reflect the influence of Stoicism and, in particular, the philosophy of Epictetus, the Stoic. The Meditations may be read as a series of practical philosophical. Aurelius Aristotle is on Facebook.
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