Cigarette smoking research papers

History of tobacco A reproduction of a carving from the temple at PalenqueMexico, depicting a Maya deity using a smoking tube The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes. The Mayaand later the Aztecssmoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings.

Cigarette smoking research papers

Vinyl chloride What are some of the health problems caused by cigarette smoking? Smoking is the leading cause of premature, preventable death in this country.

Cigarette smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke cause aboutpremature deaths each year in the United States 1. Mortality rates among smokers are about three times higher than among people who have never smoked 67.

Smoking causes cancers of the lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, cervix, colon, and rectum, as well as acute myeloid leukemia 1 — 3. Smoking also causes heart disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm a balloon-like bulge in an artery in the chestchronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD chronic bronchitis and emphysemadiabetesosteoporosisrheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degenerationand cataractsand worsens asthma Cigarette smoking research papers in adults.

Smokers are at higher risk of developing pneumoniatuberculosisand other airway infections 1 — 3. In addition, smoking causes inflammation and impairs immune function 1.

There have also been changes over time in the type of lung cancer smokers develop — a decline in squamous cell carcinomas but a dramatic increase in adenocarcinomas. Smoking makes it harder for a woman to get pregnant.

Men who smoke are at greater risk of erectile dysfunction 19. But regardless of their age, smokers can substantially reduce their risk of disease, including cancer, by quitting. What are the risks of tobacco smoke to nonsmokers? Environmental Protection Agency, the U. National Toxicology Program, the U.

Surgeon General, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer have classified secondhand smoke as a known human carcinogen cancer-causing agent 511 Inhaling secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in nonsmoking adults 124.

Approximately 7, lung cancer deaths occur each year among adult nonsmokers in the United States as a result of exposure to secondhand smoke 1. Secondhand smoke causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children 24.

Cigarette smoking research papers

In the United States, exposure to secondhand smoke is estimated to cause about 34, deaths from heart disease each year 1. Pregnant women exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of having a baby with a small reduction in birth weight 1.

Children exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk of SIDS, ear infections, colds, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Secondhand smoke exposure can also increase the frequency and severity of asthma symptoms among children who have asthma.

Smoking is highly addictive. The addiction to cigarettes and other tobacco products that nicotine causes is similar to the addiction produced by using drugs such as heroin and cocaine Nicotine is present naturally in the tobacco plant.

But tobacco companies intentionally design cigarettes to have enough nicotine to create and sustain addiction.

The amount of nicotine that gets into the body is determined by the way a person smokes a tobacco product and by the nicotine content and design of the product.

Nicotine is absorbed into the bloodstream through the lining of the mouth and the lungs and travels to the brain in a matter of seconds.

Taking more frequent and deeper puffs of tobacco smoke increases the amount of nicotine absorbed by the body. Are other tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco or pipe tobacco, harmful and addictive?

All forms of tobacco are harmful and addictive 4 There is no safe tobacco product. In addition to cigarettes, other forms of tobacco include smokeless tobaccocigarspipeshookahs waterpipesbidisand kreteks.

Smokeless tobacco is a type of tobacco that is not burned. It includes chewing tobaccooral tobacco, spit or spitting tobacco, dip, chew, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and snuff.

Smokeless tobacco causes oral mouth, tongue, cheek and gumesophageal, and pancreatic cancers and may also cause gum and heart disease 11 These include premium cigars, little filtered cigars LFCsand cigarillos.

LFCs resemble cigarettes, but both LFCs and cigarillos may have added flavors to increase appeal to youth and young adults 15 Most cigars are composed primarily of a single type of tobacco air-cured and fermentedand have a tobacco leaf wrapper. Studies have found that cigar smoke contains higher levels of toxic chemicals than cigarette smoke, although unlike cigarette smoke, cigar smoke is often not inhaled Cigar smoking causes cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and lung.

It may also cause cancer of the pancreas.Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.)The practice is believed to have begun as early as – BC in Mesoamerica and South America.

Smoking damages nearly every organ in the body.

Cigarette smoking research papers

It is directly responsible for a range of diseases, including heart disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer.

In fact, smoking accounts for E-cigarette smoke (ECS) delivers nicotine through aerosols without burning tobacco. ECS is promoted as noncarcinogenic. We found that ECS induces DNA damage in mouse lung, bladder, and heart and reduces DNA-repair functions and proteins in lung. Nicotine and its nitrosation product 4-(methylnitrosamine)(3-pyridyl)butanone can cause the same effects as ECS and enhance .

Read the key facts about smoking and cancer risk, and find the supporting evidence from academic research and scientific studies to see why we say what we do.

Manjer J, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, et al. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: Results from the EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer. ; doi/ijc. The truth about the tobacco industry in its own words Tobacco Explained was originally developed and written by Clive Bates and Andy Rowell for the London-based Action on Smoking and health(ASH).

About second hand smoke. The original Surgeon General's report, followed by this first "hazard" warning on cigarette packages, the subsequent "danger" warning on cigarette packages, the removal of cigarette advertising from television and the inclusion of the "danger" warning in cigarette advertising, were all "blows" of sorts for the tobacco industry.

Cigarette - Wikipedia