History[ edit ] Five seminal steps in ancient Chinese papermaking outlined in a woodcut. Pulp for papermaking was produced by macerating mulberry bark as early as the 2nd century in Han dynasty China, where the invention of paper is traditionally attributed to Cai Lun.
Nine Facts about Top Journals in Economics David Card, Stefano DellaVigna. NBER Working Paper No. Issued in January NBER Program(s):Aging, Corporate Finance, Children, Economics of Education, Industrial Organization, Law and Economics, Labor Studies, Monetary Economics, Public Economics, Political Economy, Economic Fluctuations and Growth How has publishing in top economics . Economics (/ ɛ k ə ˈ n ɒ m ɪ k s, iː k ə-/) is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Get Help from Top-Notch Economics Essay Writing Service. To write a good academic paper in economics, one has to possess significant background knowledge in the discipline on the whole and, potentially, some of its narrower segments, such as international economics, microeconomics or macroeconomics.
Markets Economists study trade, production and consumption decisions, such as those that occur in a traditional marketplace. Electronic trading brings together buyers and sellers through an electronic trading platform and network to create virtual market places.
Microeconomics examines how entities, forming a market structureinteract within a market to create a market system. These entities include private and public players with various classifications, typically operating under scarcity of tradable units and light government regulation.
In theory, in a free market the Economics paper sum of of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers may reach economic equilibrium over time in reaction to price changes; in practice, various issues may prevent equilibrium, and any equilibrium Economics paper may not necessarily be morally equitable.
For example, if the supply of healthcare services is limited by external factorsthe equilibrium price may be unaffordable for many who desire it but cannot pay for it. Various market structures exist. In perfectly competitive marketsno participants are large enough to have the market power to set the price of a homogeneous product.
In other words, every participant is a "price taker" as no participant influences the price of a product.
In the real world, markets often experience imperfect competition. Forms include monopoly in which there is only one seller of a goodduopoly in which there are only two sellers of a goodoligopoly in which there are few sellers of a goodmonopolistic competition in which there are many sellers producing highly differentiated goodsmonopsony in which there is only one buyer of a goodand oligopsony in which there are few buyers of a good.
Unlike perfect competition, imperfect competition invariably means market power is unequally distributed. Firms under imperfect competition have the potential to be "price makers", which means that, by holding a disproportionately high share of market power, they can influence the prices of their products.
Microeconomics studies individual markets by simplifying the economic system by assuming that activity in the market being analysed does not affect other markets.
This method of analysis is known as partial-equilibrium analysis supply and demand. This method aggregates the sum of all activity in only one market. General-equilibrium theory studies various markets and their behaviour. It aggregates the sum of all activity across all markets. This method studies both changes in markets and their interactions leading towards equilibrium.
Production theory basicsOpportunity costEconomic efficiencyand Production—possibility frontier In microeconomics, production is the conversion of inputs into outputs. It is an economic process that uses inputs to create a commodity or a service for exchange or direct use.
Production is a flow and thus a rate of output per period of time. Distinctions include such production alternatives as for consumption food, haircuts, etc. Opportunity cost is the economic cost of production: Choices must be made between desirable yet mutually exclusive actions.
It has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice ". Part of the cost of making pretzels is that neither the flour nor the morning are available any longer, for use in some other way. The opportunity cost of an activity is an element in ensuring that scarce resources are used efficiently, such that the cost is weighed against the value of that activity in deciding on more or less of it.
Opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs but could be measured by the real cost of output forgoneleisureor anything else that provides the alternative benefit utility. Other inputs may include intermediate goods used in production of final goods, such as the steel in a new car.
Economic efficiency measures how well a system generates desired output with a given set of inputs and available technology. Efficiency is improved if more output is generated without changing inputs, or in other words, the amount of "waste" is reduced.
A widely accepted general standard is Pareto efficiencywhich is reached when no further change can make someone better off without making someone else worse off. An example production—possibility frontier with illustrative points marked.
The production—possibility frontier PPF is an expository figure for representing scarcity, cost, and efficiency. In the simplest case an economy can produce just two goods say "guns" and "butter".
The PPF is a table or graph as at the right showing the different quantity combinations of the two goods producible with a given technology and total factor inputs, which limit feasible total output.ECONOMICS B.A. – I BA/timberdesignmag.com Paper -I MICRO ECONOMICS Note: The Question paper will have two question the first section is compulsory containing ten short answer question each of two marks based.
Nine Facts about Top Journals in Economics David Card, Stefano DellaVigna. NBER Working Paper No. Issued in January NBER Program(s):Aging, Corporate Finance, Children, Economics of Education, Industrial Organization, Law and Economics, Labor Studies, Monetary Economics, Public Economics, Political Economy, Economic Fluctuations and Growth How has publishing in top economics .
Welcome to EconPapers! EconPapers provides access to RePEc, the world's largest collection of on-line Economics working papers, journal articles and software. We have: , Working Papers (, downloadable) in 4, series 1,, Journal Articles (1,, downloadable) in 3, journals 4, Software Items (4, downloadable) in 36 series.
Auburn Economics Working Paper Series Department of Economics papers, with downloads Series Reports Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology 3 papers, 3 with downloads Auckland, The University of Working Papers Department of .
Encompassing the traditional economics research paper topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, this list will meet the needs of several types of readers. Students of economics will find summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro- and macroeconomics.
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