New Zealand ranks at position 27 with women comprising The United Kingdom is ranked at 58 Paxton describes three factors that are the basis for why national level representation has become much larger over the past several decades. The first is the changing structural and economic conditions of nations, which says that educational advancements along with an increase in women's participation in the labor force encourages representation.
A stigma began to be attached to whomever and wherever poverty was seen. The United States experienced a major wave of immigration during the 19th century. Many immigrants came to America seeking greater economic opportunity, however many were discriminated against due to color, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity and national origin.
This led to centralized areas with diverse populations working in factories developing industrial products such as the cotton gin. This shift in America led to the origin of areas seen today as slums and ghettos. However, many were also met with discrimination and low-paying factory jobs.
During this time, Native Americans were also fighting for their ability to be considered citizens of the United States without having to let go of their identities or cultural believes.
They were experiencing high levels of discrimination by being left in complete poverty where they had to comply with the BIA in order to be able to survive Knox, C. Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution in America created a dynamic of change particularly in the northern states of the Union.
This huge influx of people were mainly immigrants and recently freed African Americans that settled into centralized areas that were often referred to as slums by muckrakers during the end of the 19th century Knox,pp.
Throughout cities in which factories were thriving and a large influx of people were coming, poverty began to change in regards to who specifically was poor and why.
For example, in cities such as New York, the Italian mafia began to become established in some areas of high discrimination and high poverty.
|Secondary Education||Women's Colleges African American Colleges The institutions of higher education currently referred to as the historically black colleges originated in the mid-nineteenth century as a result of the enslavement of African Americans. Because of the numerous slave revolts by literate slaves, literacy was denied most slaves in the South and formal education was prohibited.|
|African American Colleges||New England[ edit ] The first American schools in the thirteen original colonies opened in the 17th century.|
|Women in government - Wikipedia||An Historical Perspective The word education is derived from the Latin root word educere which means to bring forth, draw up, and lead out or to rear. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica it is defined as discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various non-formal and informal means of socialization.|
Immigrants were very discriminated against during this time based off of their language, culture, names and accents Knox, C. Many were soon without work and unable to support their families. This led to communities looking to gang membership and affiliation as a means to rise above poverty and and to get out of the cycles in which they were stuck in living in inner city areas Knox, C.
One issue that arose during this era was the lack of childcare in industrial areas. In America during this time, employer sponsored child care centers were rarely seen and in contrast, factories engaged highly in child labor until the progressive era in which the child labor law restricted such actions Knox,pp.
Worker discrimination was seen commonly during the industrial revolution specifically against immigrants and African Americans. Of the many African Americans that migrated to the north during this time most were met with competition for low paying jobs with recent immigrants Knox,pp.
Immigration and Nativism Nativism is a construct scholars employ to explain hostility and intense opposition to an internal minority on the grounds of its imputed foreign connections. Appearing in three basic forms in American history, nativism was first characterized by antagonism toward Catholics during colonial and early national eras.
Anti-Catholicism peaked from the s through the s, concomitant with the growing debate over slavery. This variant reflected themes popular since the Protestant Reformation, stimulated by American fears of French, Spanish, and papal threats in the New World Bennett, A second form of nativism, manifest in the dread of alien radicalism, emerged during the s when the wars of the French Revolution embroiled the United States and threatened the republican experiment.
Jewish immigrants, the non-Catholic target, were assailed as dirty, bearded foreign degenerates. New anti-alien groups proliferated, calling for immigration restriction and attacking Catholic political control in the big cities.
The largest of these groups was the American Protective Association, with a membership reachingThis new nativist effort emerged in a period when influential public figures, including such major reform leaders as Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt, embraced racist theorie Like nativists in earlier decades, the focus was on the threat of Catholics and now Jews to Protestant America and on the social problems accompanying the newcomers.
Again, ethnic differences were linked to racial inferiority Brodkin, While nativism declined in the Progressive Era during the first decade and a half of the twentieth century, World War I and the postwar Red Scare briefly revived it.
German-Americans were attacked during the war. Chapter 2 goes more into depth about the problems arising when Native Americans allied with the British after the war of Knox,p. Because of this, resources started becoming difficult to get and competition for them arose.
The fight for land fueled many disputes over land properties and many resources. S, providing a legal foundation for direct U. S policy control over any Native Americans living within U. Their land was taken from them because they did not have the same cultural values that the American people did and that brings me to my next point about resources being taken away from them and the fact that the children of the Native Americans were taken away and sent to boarding schools.
In class, Claire talked about children being taken away from their families to be americanized. They were ripped from their cultural values and if they tried to act the way they were raised they would get punished for it. Majority of the times parents would agree to send their children off to boarding schools because they thought that they would be better off there because they would not freeze or starve to death.
During the end of the s and the beginning of the s, Native Americans began shifting their ways of doing things. Women were valued a lot more because of their abilities to make baskets and wool different things.
In addition, men were beginning to farm instead of hunt and to do labor work. Lastly, women were also given the opportunity to do these jobs because at this time, anyone was seen as capable of being able to get the job done.
During the colonial era, most immigrants or colonists were poor.The common-school reformers argued for the case on the belief that common schooling could create good citizens unite society and prevent crime and poverty. As a result of their efforts, free public education at the elementary level was available for all American children by the end of the 19th century.
When I was in the elementary school, I was introduced to Dr. Seuss for the first time. The Introduction of the Common School Movement and the Importance of Educating Women and Minorities ( exclusively providing schooling (education) to male children of the rich and affluent was officially underway with the introduction of the Common.
Introduction of Common School Movement? * The quality of education did not increase during the common school movement. * Teachers with only an elementary school education were often hired.
* Pushed for education of women * Encourage women to take more responsibility in their personal lives. Poor, white females and minorities excluded from schools.
2. Planted seeds for public support of education and local control of schools. Introduction of Common School Movement?
* The quality of education did not increase during the common school movement. * Teachers with only an elementary school education were often hired.
In the s, as the common-school movement developed across the United States, a widespread need for teachers prompted the formation of "normal schools." Considered the more "nurturing" of the sexes, women were welcomed into schools as teachers.
This started to change with the introduction of two-year normal schools starting in Normal schools increasingly provided career paths for unmarried middle class women. The common-school movement quickly gained strength across the North.
Connecticut adopted a similar system in , and Massachusetts passed a compulsory attendance law.