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The electronic version issued November contains several factual corrections; several informational footnotes which were not included in the paper version; and a few additions to the bibliography.
The Regents originally consisted of the governor, other state officers, and the mayors of New York and Albany, ex officio, plus twenty-four persons appointed for life.
This unwieldy body soon got involved in the day-to-day administration of Columbia. A compromise bill became law.
The act empowered the Regents to "visit and inspect all the colleges, academies, and schools" in the state, award higher academic degrees, hold and distribute funds, and exercise other powers of a corporation.
Until the board was reorganized under the unification act ofnineteen Regents were elected for life terms by joint ballot of the Legislature; in addition, the governor and lieutenant governor served as Regents. Since the University of the State of New York has been continued by the Constitution, which states that its corporate powers "may be increased, modified, or diminished" by the Legislature.
During the nineteenth century the Regents exercised oversight by reviewing statistical reports from academies and colleges; only occasionally did Regents actually visit an institution.
The Regents adopted standards for incorporating private academies and collegesand required academies to offer acceptable programs in order to receive aid from the Literature Fund, established in The Legislature made the Regents trustees of the State Library and the collections of the State Museum in andrespectively.
During the later nineteenth century the Regents developed educational standards for academies and high schools statewide, through use of the Regents examinations and syllabi. These innovations were discussed and promoted by the University convocations, meetings of educators held annually starting The scope of the University expanded significantly in andwhen the Regents obtained legislation giving them the right to incorporate and supervise libraries, museums, correspondence schools, and other educational institutions.
The Secretary to the Board of Regents had long administered the affairs of the University. Starting in the Secretary then the redoubtable Melvil Dewey, also head of the State Library supervised full-time inspectors of secondary schools, libraries, colleges, and other institutions reporting to the Regents.
Unification of the University and Department of Public Instruction. New York State also developed a statewide system of public schools, under the common school law of Gideon Hawley, the first Superintendent of Common Schools, organized the system, distributed school aid from the Common School Fund, and prodded local officials to set up school districts and submit reports.
Hawley was dismissed in for political reasons, and thereafter the Secretary of State served as the Superintendent of Common Schools. In the Legislature created a Department of Public Instruction, headed by a Superintendent elected jointly by the Senate and Assembly for a three-year renewable term.
The new Department had a small staff which carried on the work of advising local school authorities, allocating state aid, and preparing reports to the Legislature. The responsibilities of the Regents and the state officials in charge of the common schools overlapped.
The Regents had a vague statutory authority to oversee all education in the state. The latter official shared with the Regents the responsibility to inspect and report on academies.
The rapid development of public high schools after the s caused administrative confusion. The high schools were operated by union free or city school districts, which the law made subject to visitation and inspection by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
However, the academic programs of all secondary schools were under general supervision of the Regents. Unification of elementary, secondary, and higher education under one administration was considered and rejected by the constitutional conventions of andand proposed in legislative bills from time to time.
Outright competition between the Regents and the Department of Public Instruction became intense and public during the s, when the Superintendents of Public Instruction lobbied to have all secondary education placed under their control. In the annual University convocation requested Governor Theodore Roosevelt to name a special commission to study unification.
A joint legislative committee in recommended that elementary and secondary education be entrusted to a three-member commission, consisting of one Regent and two other members appointed by each of the two major parties in the Legislature.
Governor Benjamin Odell and a Republican legislative caucus drew up their own, very different unification bill. This bill became law, establishing an Education Department, effective April 1, The new Department was headed by a Commissioner of Education, appointed by and responsible to the Regents.
Draper, who had previously served two terms as Superintendent of Public Instruction, was named the first Commissioner of Education. Regents were to be elected by joint ballot of the Legislature to serve fixed terms, initially eleven years; some of the sitting Regents were continued in office.
The board consisted of one Regent from each Supreme Court judicial district.
|Stuctural Challenges||This explains the opposition to the accountability measures within the No Child Left Behind Act and other school reform efforts.|
|Education Next is a journal of opinion and research about education policy.||It is being applied to increasingly wider areas beyond employment,   including lending,  housing, college admissions, voting rights and elsewhere. Equal opportunity provisions have been written into regulations and have been debated in courtrooms.|
|History of NYSED: New York State Library||Her drive for inclusiveness, equality, and integrity is the byproduct of resonant, across-the-board life experiences. Toni was raised in Salt Lake City, Utah, the youngest of six children; an African-American Baptist in a primarily white, almost universally Mormon community.|
|Urban School Challenges | RTI Action Network||Council of Urban Boards of Education. The Quest for Equal Educational Opportunity.|
Later on members-at-large were added three afterfour after The Legislature reduced the renewable terms of office to seven years inand to five years inciting a need for increased accountability of the Regents.
Today the University of the State of New York embraces all the elementary, secondary, and higher education institutions in the state, the latter including libraries, museums, and other institutions of learning.
The Board of Regents is the only state board of education having authority over all educational activity at all levels, including private and public, non-profit and for-profit institutions.
The board does much of its work through its standing committees, four of which correspond to the major offices of the Department, plus committees on professional practice; administration, law, and legislation; and ethics. The full Board of Regents meets monthly except August and since has held some meetings outside of Albany.Inequities Between Suburban and Urban Schools are not all alike; they funds to provide equal opportunity, per manently enjoin the Treasurer from further i s Board of Education of the School District of the City of Detroit.
"Complaint." A General Civil. May 16, · Such an opportunity," wrote a unanimous court in Brown, "where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.". One of the most-enduring myths in the debate over the reform of American public education is the idea that urban school districts and the kids who attend them are somehow different than those in suburban and rural communities.
Dr. Christopher Emdin is a passionate and unapologetic advocate for the advancement of urban education nationwide. In his book, For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood and the Rest of Y’all Too, Emdin, an associate professor at Columbia University’s Teachers College, conveys his methods of.
More than twice as many students attend high-poverty schools in urban than in nonurban districts (Department of Housing and Urban Development, , p. ), but in some states, urban districts spend less per pupil than do nonurban districts (National Center For Education .
This is the first article in a three-part series. In this three-part series, we present an overview of the issues most relevant to the development and implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) models in contemporary urban schools.